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7HR02 Resource And Talent Management To Sustain Success Assignment Example UK

CIPD Level 7 Assignment Example: 7HR02 Assignment Answers

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The greatest assets in an organization are its people and talent. Every employer seeks to attract and retain the most talented and experienced workforce. This unit focuses how organizations can create sustainable resourcing and talent management and maximise productivity of staff and organisation. In this unit, you will learn how business environment affect resourcing and talent management practices, reduction of employee turnover and technologies and tools to improve employee recruitment and retention. You will also learn how different organizations attract and retain talents in key labor markets and succession planning in order to sustain success in the organisation . Finally you will evaluate how policy and practice influence selection and induction in competitive organization context.  

1.4 Critically evaluate your organisation’s employer brand and make recommendations on how this can be improved to ensure a more compelling employee value proposition is offered, securing an enhanced reputation for the organisation C in the labour market.

Introduction

Employer branding is a strategic process in which an organisation develops an attractive workplace for existing or potential talent to bring essential knowledge and skills to achieve goals and vision. An organisation’s employer brand is a collection of characteristics and intangible qualities that set it apart from others in the industry in terms of employee experience, attracting and recruiting the top talent in the labour market, and building excellent workplace culture to influence meaningful work(CIPD, 2021; Sundberg, 2017). Employee value proposition (EVP) as a product of employer brand refers to an employer’s psychological contract to workers for their skills and input in its strategic direction (CIPD, 2021). According to Verlinden (2020), EVP encompasses linking elements such as pay, benefits, personal and professional development, cash treats, wellness (health and work-life balance) with values, mission, workplace culture, and social responsibility. It is an arrangement to become an employer of choice regarding working practices, experience, or perception in the labour market (Onoufriou, 2021).

Critical evaluation of my organisation’s employer brand

DFCU Bank in Uganda is critical of contemporary employee issues linked to personal and professional experiences. Firstly, its employer branding strategy prioritises underrepresented talent pools by offering opportunities for career development opportunities. Its key strategy is the ‘Keep a Girl in School’ campaign, a social responsibility and skilling program outlining women empowerment rhetoric (DFCU Bank, 2020). Additionally, its strategy has prioritised high levels of employee social responsibility since 2020 based on staff engagement, aligning with its brand promise to offer a work environment driven by a sense of purpose and meaning (DFCU Bank, 2020; CIO Africa, 2022).This alignment is integrated into its vision, values, and culture it builds to improve HR strategy and policies to improve working lives (Sundberg, 2017; CIPD, 2021). This shows that it is concerned with the contemporary challenges of its female workforce and employee psychological contracts.

In addition, DFCU Bank prioritises resolving communication issues which impair the creation of effective employee engagement, voice, and interactions at the workplace. This is despite the organisation’s Social Media Policy encouraging employee voice as part of a better working conditions strategy. The responsible social media use rhetoric appeals to potential talent in the labour market but also received mixed reactions as the bank does not completely trust what employees may share. Nonetheless, the policy stance is pivotal for employer branding. It is embedded in its new Code of Ethics to encourage employee openness in seeking support and reporting issues that violate a positive working environment (DFCU Group, 2021). However, it is notable that only 50% of employees perceive employee engagement and working conditions as effective for EVP, meaning there is a drop in engagement scores. Reasonably, there have been differences in leadership and a deficiency of diversity and inclusivity, which are key to becoming a leading employer brand in the current working environment (The Independent, 2023). This has changed HR professional recruitment strategies, such as bringing in Human Capital, Data analytics, and business technology specialists to engage in workforce planning, succession planning, L&D, employee engagement, relations, and well-being (CIO Africa, 2022). This shows that DFC Bank’s employer branding is inconsistent hence the recent changes to be the employer of choice in Uganda to compete with other industry leaders.

My recommendations: Refining the recruitment process to respond to labour market demands

DFCU Bank has diversity and inclusion issues which means it is limited in its talent acquisition or building a safe workplace where every top talent can be attracted to work and stay for long-term. According to CIPD (2021), inclusion and diversity are the modern working environment essentials in employer branding. Therefore, hiring diversely and inclusively can help tap into underrepresented talent pools, enhancing its existing social responsibility campaigns. This meets the demands of post-pandemic labour market expectations, raises EVP and helps retain talent amidst the great resignation exposure of shifting power dynamics at the workplace (CIPD, 2022; CIPD Podcast 179, 2022). Besides, aligning diversity and inclusion with the recruitment process helps define the kind of candidates it wants, how to engage them, offers, and respond to onboarding experience needs after hiring to improve EVP’s role in sustaining employer branding(Hill, 2022).

Improving employee engagement and motivation

These have been discursive and inconsistent in the context of DFCU Bank as the independent (2023) reports. This shows that this is a pressing concern to adopt leadership that demonstrates value in employee input in experience and business initiativesand meaningful mentorships for young employees during onboarding to bring the best out of workers (Jouany, 2023). This will build functional professional relationships (Levy, 2022). The organisation should solicit continuous feedback from workers to stabilise psychological contracts and build a highly engaged workforce to lower turnover and attract talent (Ryba, 2021; Gifford and Young, 2021). On the other hand, motivation is through cash threats and investing in employee health and wellness programs (which is inconsistent in DFCU bank) despite the young female foundation program on menstrual sanitation. Therefore highlighting benefits employees can enjoy at the workplace motivates them to stay but also improves EVP and overall employer brand to compete in the current labour market (Conolly, 2022; CIPD, 2021

Conclusion

Employee branding and EVP are mutually reinforcing and are an organisation’s long-term success elements. Based on DFCU Bank, Uganda, its current employer branding status has been inconsistent due to communication issues signifying a need to improve engagement, diversity and inclusion concerns, especially on gender, and half support on social media integration to enhance the voice. However, improving recruitment and effectively responding to the current working lives demands when hiring can streamline its comprehensive EVP and boost employer branding. This is through positive perceptions in its hiring, choice of candidates, and alignment with its vision of having a meaningful and inclusive workplace. Lastly, employee engagement and motivation build a sense of belonging and being valued due to constant engagement. Importantly, this builds a positive working culture due to relationships, thereby bridging the gaps and barriers of DFCU Bank becoming the employer of choice in its labour market.

References

CIO Africa (2022). DFCU Bank Appoints Three To Executive Positions. Available at: https://cioafrica.co/dfcu-bank-appoints-three-to-executive-positions/ (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

CIPD (2021). Employer Branding | Factsheets. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/people/recruitment/brand-factsheet#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

CIPD (2022). Raising your employees value proposition. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/learn/events-networks/webinars/value-proposition#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

CIPD Podcast 179 (2022). Is your employee value proposition fit for a new era of work? | Podcast. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/podcasts/raising-employee-value-proposition#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

Conolly, S (2022). Five Tips on Employer Branding & EVP. Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/five-tips-employer-branding-evp-sinead-connolly-?trk=articles_directory (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

DFCU Bank (2020). dfcu Bank staff support 300 Pallisa girls through the ‘Keep a Girl in School’ campaign. Available at: https://www.dfcugroup.com/news/dfcu-bank-staff-support-300-pallisa-girls-through-the-keep-a-girl-in-school-campaign/ (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

DFCU Group (2021). Code of Ethics. https://www.dfcugroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/dfcu-Code-of-Ethics-.pdf (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Hill, C. (2022). How to build a strong employer branding strategy to attract—and keep—great talent. [online] Sprout Social. Available at: https://sproutsocial.com/insights/employer-branding-strategy/ [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

Jouany, V. (2023). Employee Value Proposition: The Complete Guide to Building a Great EVP. [online] Haiilo. Available at: https://haiilo.com/blog/6-steps-to-build-your-employees-value-proposition/ [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

Levy, A. (2022) How to Cultivate Your Employer Brand and EVP – Brand BuildingRecruitment Marketing. Available at: https://www.recruitmentmarketing.com/employer-brand/how-to-cultivate-your-employer-brand-and-evp/#:~:text=A%20good%20employment%20marketer%20will,employer%20brand%20echos%20your%20EVP. (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Onoufriou, D. (2021). How to be an employer of choice in increasingly competitive labour markets. Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-employer-choice-increasingly-competitive-labour-demetra (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Sundberg, J. (2017) What is Employer Branding?Link Humans. Available at: https://linkhumans.com/employer-branding/ (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

The Independent (2023) dfcu bank and gender equality in a modern work environmentThe Independent Uganda:. Available at: https://www.independent.co.ug/dfcu-bank-and-gender-equality-in-a-modern-work-environment/ (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Verlinden, N. (2020). The Employee Value Proposition in a Nutshell. [online] AIHR. Available at: https://www.aihr.com/blog/employee-value-proposition-evp/ [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

2.3 Critically analyse how technologies can be utilised to improve employee selection, drawing upon examples to illustrate.

Introduction

Today, the dynamics of resourcing talents into an organisation have changed and continue to evolve (CIPD Profession Map, 2021). To understand selection, we define employee recruitment as aprocess of diligently seeking out, identifying, and selecting employees with the right skills, knowledge, abilities, and values for a particular position or job (Maxwell, 2021). This is important as technology contributes to a tight labour market in most sectors, including the banking industry; hence, attracting and selecting fairly is necessary for long-term impact. Thus, employee selection refers to matching a workplace’s needs with candidates’ specific skills and qualifications. According to CIPD (2021), this includes shortlisting candidates for assessment through an interview process based on ability without subjectivities. This question explores how technology can be utilised to streamline employee selection. 

Technologies to utilise: analysis and examples and benefits and drawbacks.

Candidate Screening Software (Automated Sifting Tools).

According to CIPD (2023), AI has been a growing trend supporting HR in people management in the UK (see Figure 1), which only exposes the gap in developing economies like Uganda and other African countries. One of these tools is the automated HR information systems (HRIS) which can support HR in recording data on employee skills and identify the organisation’s workforce planning regarding critical business areas and capability and ability need (Vulpen, 2019; Nikolaou, 2021).For instance, DFCU Bank in Uganda receives thousands of CIVs and personal statements from applicants for every job vacancy advertised or announced. Therefore, embedding a candidate screening software improves selection by matching the applicant’s assessment score (on skills and suitability with the advertised jobs’ key qualifications), thereby prioritising the top candidates (The Rec, 2022).

Automating the assessment of applications can also be improved through insights from HRIS’ appraisal reports to ensure organisations leverage the internal labour market for sustainable business practices and enhance candidates’suitability (Mohdzaini, 2021). According to McCann andMacKenzie (2022), this helps track applicant relationships with management and company culture onboarding concerns. For example, DFCU bank can use HRIS as an employee analytics approach to analyse key employee performance indicators of internal or external talent applications and select candidates that match the needed skills for specific job positions (Eisner, 2020; CIPD, 2023). This would help shortlist job-fit candidates for further assessment or interviewing.

Benefits and drawbacks

Automatic sifting tools save time, screen more applications, and engage candidates without ghosting any applicant (McCannand MacKenzie, 2022; CIPD, 2023).Secondly, it is a shift from traditional screening methods. This creates a standardised process that ensures consistency in the quality of selected candidates based on needed abilities (The Rec, 2022;Nikolaou, 2021). Additionally, Automation also levels the field by responding to diversity and inclusion needs which helps avoid outright bias. Using the case of DFCU bank, this can resolve diversity and inclusion issues in hiring or retaining and build effective employee selection criteria guiding workforce plans.According to Vulpen (2019), this aligns HR strategy with the employee selection process with HRIS. Fourth, AI tools are subject to regulation which helps keep ethical and professional integrity in the selection, thereby streamlining people management. However, candidate screening software is made of and trained by biased data which implies that it may stick to a criterion that “perpetuates existing workforce biases” (The Rec, 2022Nikolaou, 2021). For instance, Amazon’s algorithm is a recent flaw in applications for employee selection because it overlooked candidates who were educated through women-only institutions. Secondly, the functionality of AI’s HRIS can be compromised, thereby limiting suitability outcomes. For instance, if the screening expects a certain CV format and suitable candidates in DFCU Bank do not use it, such can be ignored despite being potentially the most job-fit candidates.

Figure 1: Presence of AI in HR technologies (CIPD, 2023).

Chatbot for the interviewing process

AI sifting tools help screen and shortlist candidates or create the best job-fit applicants’ list for interviewing selection. Therefore, Chatbot as an AI interviewing tool helps assess various characteristics outside of CV qualification to filter applicants from a large pool(Mohdzaini, 2021; CIPD, 2023). For instance, working in DFCU Bank or any other banking company, the utmost skill is conversational or communication competence. Therefore, Chatbot can be used to interview applicants and analyse phrases and sentences to identify candidates that show decisiveness or responsiveness for hiring (BasuMallick, 2021). This can be utilised in online tests and assessments involving Chatbot program interactions. Furthermore, Chatbots can be used for video conferencing to gauge employees’ facial expressions when challenged, emotional intelligence during stressful conditions, eye contact, body language, and tonal range (Indeed Editorial Team, 2023). This selects the applicants to show good personality, communication, or body language because the service industry is sensitive and vulnerable to conduct issues (Bogush, 2022).

Benefits and drawbacks

Firstly, Chatbot is a conversational tool which engages candidates. This improves their experience as interaction is vital to the selection process (Mohdzaini, 2021;Nikolaou, 2021). Additionally, improved efficiency saves time and resources as it is structured to identify attributes other than CV credentials. It is an objective evaluation, uses data-driven insights based on HR metrics, and leads to improved employee candidate matching (Kumar, 2023). However, concerns such as a lack of balance between human interaction and AI’s conversational tool deem Chatbot flawed in employee selection. For instance, the DFCU Bank selection process would disregard the most vital part of its business practices; people interaction assessment. Also, there is still limited knowledge of the best practice for Chatbot in selection (Kumar, 2023). This means it is less leveraged, especially because it cannot detect employee experience.

Conclusion

Technology is advancing at unprecedented speed, constantly revolutionising the world of work. Thus, organisations can choose from various tools to improve the selection process. For instance, candidate screening software is emerging as one of the most reliable and futuristic tools to sift and match applicants with specific jobs and job needs. While this is advantageous due to efficiency, it is paralleled by emerging issues and concerns about functionality. On the other hand, Chatbot tools are the current buzzwords in the technology revolution. It is praised for efficiency but can flaw employee selection during interviewing due to disrupting an essential aspect of the process, human interaction.

References

BasuMalik, C. (2021). Chatbots for Recruitment. Available at: https://www.spiceworks.com/hr/recruitment-onboarding/articles/how-chatbots-can-transform-recruiting-processes/ (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Bogush, P. (2022). How has Technology changed the Hiring Process – Businesstechweekly.com. Available at: https://www.businesstechweekly.com/hr-and-recruitment/technology-hiring-process/#Interviewing-Candidates (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

CIPD (2021). Selection Methods | Factsheets. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/people/recruitment/selection-factsheet#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

CIPD (2023). Impact of ChatGPT and other AI chatbots on the future of work. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/work/technology/ai-chatbots [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

CIPD (2023). Using AI responsibly in people management. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/work/technology/workplace-people-management/ai-people-management#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

CIPD profession Map (2021). Resourcing | CIPD Profession Map. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://peopleprofession.cipd.org/profession-map/specialist-knowledge/resourcing#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

Eisner, M. (2020). 15 Process Automation Examples.  Available at: https://www.processmaker.com/blog/15-process-automation-examples/# (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Indeed Editorial Team (2023). 7 Chatbot Interview Questions (With Sample Answers And Tips)https://in.indeed.com/career-advice/interviewing/chatbot-interview-questions#:~:text=Updated%203%20March%202023,solutions%20for%20businesses%20and%20consumers. (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Kumar, P. (2023) A Proven Strategy to Enhance Talent Acquisition With Recruiting Chatbots: Updated for 2023Humanly.io. Available at: https://humanly.io/recruiting-chatbot-strategy/#:~:text=Chatbot%20technology%20can%20help%20with,their%20hiring%20process%20in%202022. (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Maxwell, G. (2021). Recruitment Process Overview | Factsheets. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/people/recruitment/factsheet#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

McCann, A. and MacKenzie, K. (2022). 11 benefits to scaling and automating your recruiting process. [online] Recruiting Resources: How to Recruit and Hire Better. Available at: https://resources.workable.com/tutorial/automated-recruiting-processes#:~:text=Automated%20recruiting%20involves%20streamlining%20the [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

Mohdzaini, H. (2021). Using technology to improve hiring and onboarding. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/work/technology/digital-transformation-insights/improve-hiring-onboarding#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

Nikolaou, I. (2021) “What is the Role of Technology in Recruitment and Selection?,” The Spanish Journal of Psychology. Cambridge University Press, 24, p. e2. doi: 10.1017/SJP.2021.6.

The Rec (2023). Automated Sifting Tools. Available at: https://www.rec.uk.com/our-view/research/practical-guides/automated-sifting-tools#:~:text=Automated%20sifting%20tools%2C%20also%20known,and%20assign%20them%20a%20score. (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Vulpen, E. (2019) What is a Human Resources Information System (HRIS)? An HR Practitioner’s GuideAIHR. Available at: https://www.aihr.com/blog/human-resources-information-system-hris/ (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

3.3 Recommend interventions that could be designed to improve the retention of staff, justifying why they are appropriate to your organisation.

Introduction

Employee retention is crucial for succession planning and long-term organisational success. It is an HR strategy to reduce turnover or the rates of employees leaving the workplace voluntarily or otherwise (Holliday, 2021). According to CIPD (2021), employee retention is the degree to which an organisation retains its high-performing workforce. This is measured as a percentage or effectiveness of HR and workforce plans regarding people management. This is important because it prevents workers from leaving and the loss of knowledge and competitive power in a market. Statistically, Robert Half’s Job Optimism Survey conducted on 2400 professionals reveals that 41% of participants intended to leave or change roles in 2022 (Half, 2022). Thus, employee retention is essential for the survival of an organisation and the sustainability of valuable employees(Juneja, 2015). In people practice, the mantra “It’s all about the people” signifies the importance of prioritising employee needs to improve retention (Peters, 2020). The two recommendations are wellness programs, work-life balance, recognition, rewards, and compensation.

Wellness programs and work-life balance

According to CIPD Good Work Index in the UK, wellness and work-life balance are among the attributes of better working lives (Norris-Green and Wheatley (2022). This report shows that it has been a bone of contention since the pandemic, as cited by the great resignation movement demands, and a critical challenge for people management today. One of the ways to improve work-life balance and retain employees is by developing flexible working arrangements at the workplace (CIPD, 2022). While in the UK, HR can design workforce plans and job designs aligning with the legislation (right to request flexible working from day one), the banking industry can also embrace it in other parts of the world. For instance, DFCU Bank can adopt shift swapping, compressed hours, or part-time practices, which are casual arrangements between employees. This can allow people to conveniently attend to family or other outside-of-work matters, which ultimately makes the HR strategies improve retention. Work-life balance increase job autonomy which builds a sense of ownership and accountability. These improve retention as employees are satisfied with their experience. However, work-life balance may cause pressure to deliver in expected arrangements, further disrupting balance (Panda and Sahoo, 2021). Besides, work-life balance may not mean good working life, which is the important goal of promoting retention.

Additionally, work-life balance can be improved by introducing hybrid working arrangements because employees have adapted to the pandemic trend, averaging that 78% of financial services workers are comfortable with remote working (International Workplace Group, 2021). This is key to retention because it supports work-life balance (71%) and improves employees’ mental health (67%) (McCartney, 2022). Similarly, wellness programs and initiatives promote employees’ physical and psychological health (Half, 2022; Baker, 2022). For instance, DFCU Bank can implement stress management programs, onsite counselling services to deal with work-related stress or reimbursement strategy for fitness expenses by its workers. This improves employees’ physical health and ultimately motivatesthem to develop loyalty and commitment, thereby retaining them. This is because it builds a sense of job satisfaction, and people feel valued and well taken care of. Benefits of wellness programs include improved psychological contracts; better working lives for satisfying employee needs, and motivation to stay since it builds a positive working culture (Holliday, 2021; Norris-Green and Wheatley, 2022). However, wellness programs face challenges such as financial constraints, especially in the post-pandemic reality. This leads to little health privacy as employees must be exclusive, or employees’ participation (lack of interest) issues (Schreiner, 2023). These compromise the efficiency of wellness programs and policies despite their potential to reduce absenteeism and turnover.

Recognition, rewards, and compensation

According to Baker (2022), recognition strategies such as developing employee engagement apps or software enables employees to share their insights and influence decisions in the workplace. As a result, this promotes positive professional and social relationships and ultimately nurtures an engaging workplace. This leads to employee retention. For instance, DFCU Bank has a social medial policy, which can help improve voice; the organisation can also develop its employee engagement apps or build multimodal communication channels to improve workplace interactions. This helps respond to employee needs because it builds awareness. Similarly, the bank can solicit employee feedback through employee satisfaction surveys or suggestion schemes, allowing involvement and encouraging participation. Engaged employees are satisfied and stay in their organisations due to commitment and loyalty to feeling psychologically empowered, and they are team members in a strategic direction (Half, 2022;Panda and Sahoo, 2021). This leads to reduced turnover because consulting employees lets them visualise their future at the workplace.

Furthermore, employee rewards and compensation are prioritised in people’s profession to improve retention. For example, CIPD recommends approaches such as conducting reward management surveys to monitor the impact of reward schemes, paying workers fairly, and investing in employee perks and benefits (CIPD, 2021). To this end, DFCU Bank can implement a performance-based reward system to show recognition for improved performance and establish fairness. This will encourage employees to stay as it promotes job satisfaction. Additionally, DFCU Bank struggles with gender equality issues, meaning the gender pay gap is also a concern driving the current diversity and inclusion initiative. Therefore, the organisation can implement a zero-tolerance to-pay discrimination policy to facilitatepaying workers within the same pay scale fairly. However, the downturns of rewards lead to conditionality in the workplace, which means retention is because of what employees get or are promised, not the deep intent (conditional loyalty) to stay and contribute to an organisation. This means financial hurdles disrupt this, causing turnover.

Conclusion

It is an uncomfortable truth that employee retention cannot be overlooked despite increasing the skilled workforce. CIPD champions this as an indicator of better working lives. As observed above, employee wellness initiatives and work-life balance are rich in the good working lives elements which ultimately help improve staff retention. In developing countries, as in the case of DFCU Bank, this is an increasingly prioritised development amidst recurring employee-related issues. Similarly, recognising employees through engagement or rewards and competitive compensation motivates them to stay.

References

Baker, P. (2022). What is employee retention? – Definition from WhatIs.com. [online] SearchHRSoftware. Available at: https://www.techtarget.com/searchhrsoftware/definition/employee-retention [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

CIPD (2021). Employee Turnover & Retention | Factsheets. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/strategy/resourcing/turnover-retention-factsheet#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

CIPD (2022). Flexible Working Practices | Factsheets. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/relations/flexible-working/factsheet#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

Halt, R (2022). 14 Effective Employee Retention Strategies. Available at: https://www.roberthalf.com/blog/management-tips/effective-employee-retention-strategies (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Holliday, M. (2021). How to Keep Top Talent. Available at: https://www.netsuite.com/portal/resource/articles/human-resources/employee-retention.shtml (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

International Working Place (2021). How the financial industry has adapted to flexible working. Available at: https://work.iwgplc.com/MediaCentre/Article/how-financial-industry-has-adapted-flexible-working (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Juneja, P. (2015). Role of HR in Employee Retention. [online] Managementstudyguide.com. Available at: https://www.managementstudyguide.com/role-of-hr-in-employee-retention.htm [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

McCartney, C. (2022). An update on flexible and hybrid working practices: Report. CIPD. https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/flexible-hybrid-working-practices-report_tcm18-108941.pdf (Accessed: 17 April 2023).

Norris-Green, M. and Wheatley, D. (2022) CIPD Good Work Index 2022. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Panda, A. and Sahoo, C.K. (2021). Work–life balance, retention of professionals and psychological empowerment: an empirical validation. European Journal of Management Studies, 26(2/3), pp.103–123. doi:https://doi.org/10.1108/ejms-12-2020-0003.

Peters, R. (2020). Why we call it the people profession | CIPD. [online] CIPD People Profession. Available at: https://peopleprofession.cipd.org/insights/articles/why-people-profession#gref [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

Schreiner, E. (2023). Barriers to Wellness Programs in the Workplace. [online] Small Business – Chron.com. Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/barriers-wellness-programs-workplace-12851.html [Accessed 17 Apr. 2023].

4.1 Drawing upon research evidence, provide a justified argument for the adoption of collaborative approaches as opposed to punitive approaches to managing and enhancing employee performance.

The adoption of collaborative approaches as opposed to punitive approaches is integral towards effective management and enhancement of employee performance. Punitive approaches differ significantly from collaborative approaches. In essence punitive management approach refers to an approach where the management focuses job punishing employees for their bad behaviour and poor performance rather than providing rewards for good behaviour and bad performance (EHS Insight, 2021).

On the other hand, a collaborative approach entails employees from different backgrounds working with the organisation’s management and leadership towards achieving common organisational goals and objectives (Team 6Q, 2022). Notably, while the punitive approach leads to a loss of employee motivation and engagement and leads to employee dissatisfaction and turnover, the collaborative approach leads to improved employee engagement, motivation, and job satisfaction and improved productivity and retention. As a consequence, implementing the collaborative approach leads to enhanced employee performance.

One of the arguments that may be used to underscore the need for adopting collaborative approaches to managing and enhancing employee performance is Theory X and Theory Y, developed by Douglass McGregor (Gordon, 2022). McGregor suggested that there exist two types of human behaviours at work, one that is negatively represented by Theory X and one that Theory Y. positively represents. According to Theory X, employees are intrinsically not attracted to work and try to avoid it whenever possible. In addition, the theory suggests that employees avoid responsibilities and resist change. The only necessary intervention is formal direction, where they are persuaded, compelled, warned or punished to ensure they achieve the set organisational goals and objectives (Gordon, 2022).

The use of punitive approaches to the employee aligns with theory X. It contributes to the development of a toxic working environment that strains employment relations and creates a resentful workforce that is demoralised and unproductive (Management Study Guide, 2023). Some of the punitive approaches that some employers may use include suspending employees from their jobs, demotion from senior positions to lower positions, termination of employment, salary dedication, and disciplinary action. For example, when employees are demoted for poor performance, they may lose their sense of meaning and satisfaction in their job. They may also become unmotivated and fail to demonstrate discretionary and citizenship behaviours crucial in enhancing employee performance.

Besides, punitive approaches to managing and enhancing employee performance fail to effectively implement corrective measures that help employees to enhance their performance (EHS Insight, 2021). Instead, they focus on punishing poor performance and bad behaviour. For instance, a punitive approach to managing an employee who records poor performance could include demotion from their job and salary deduction. This provides support and resources to enhance their performance, such as training and development, performance bonuses and counselling. While the latter encourages an employee to be more efficient in their work and to be motivated to achieve set performance goals, punitive approaches lead to resistance and turnover intention as the employee seeks better opportunities elsewhere (Neale &Butterfieldet al., 2020).

Theory Y underscores the imperative of collaborative approaches to managing and enhancing employee relations. For instance, Theory Y underscores that employees perceive their jobs as relaxing and normal (Management Study Guide, 2023). In addition, the theory emphasises that employees do not require threat and coercion to do their work. Nevertheless, they can use self-direction and self-control if dedicated to pursuing the organisation’s goals and objectives. In addition, if a job is sufficiently rewarding and satisfying, employees become loyal and committed to the work and the organisation.

 Collaborative approaches to managing and enhancing employee performance focus on improving key aspects such as an open line of communication between employees and management. According to Meyer (2022), 99% of employees want to be part of an organisation that streamlines their communication. Open communication is integral in enhancing transparency and trust in the employment relationship. Organisations must inform employees about key developments and policy shifts being implemented. In addition, employees should be accorded opportunities to influence decision-making through joint consultation meetings, surveys, and one-on-one meetings (Meyer, 2022). This helps in ensuring employees feel valued, appreciated, respected and involved. It inspires them to share their ideas and opinions, driving organisational growth and competitiveness.

 In addition, as a collaborative approach, organisations may leverage performance review meetings to support employee growth and enhance productivity (BambooHR, n.d.). Performance review meetings refer to formal and ongoing meetings between employees and employers where employee performance and progress are discussed and future performance goals are set. Performance review meetings allow employers to provide constructive feedback to employees regarding their areas of weakness and support them in establishing development plans. In addition, review meetings allow the management to determine effective interventions to support employees, such as on-the-job training, coaching, mentorship and sponsorship for further learning (Chanana, 2021). Furthermore, performance review meetings allow managers to appreciate top-performing employees through performance bonuses, recognition and awards. This helps in motivating employees to sustain good performance and productivity.

 The nudge theory underscores the need for organisations to adopt a collaborative approach to managing and enhancing employee performance (Personio, 2022). The theory based on behavioural science opines that subtle directions to assist and steer individuals towards making the right decisions or taking a specific course of action are more effective rather than enforcing them (Banerjee & John, 2021). For instance, before implementing nudges, the management should investigate why employees are not behaving in the desired manner to identify the kind of incentives to provide. For instance, employees whose productivity is low may require nudges to inform of incentives such as training and development and performance bonuses. In addition, conflict at the workplace may be caused by competition for resources and differences in personalities which may be addressed through inclusion policies and the promotion of fairness and equal access to resources.

 In conclusion, punitive and collaborative approaches are a sharp contrast, with collaborative approaches to managing employees and enhancing their performance being the most effective. While punitive approaches lead to disillusionment, resentment of the management and loss of motivation and productivity among employees, collaborative approaches lead to improved motivation, cohesion, a positive workplace culture, and productivity. Some of the collaborative interventions that may be pursued include open communication, regular feedback sessions to identify areas of support and the provision of incentives.

References

BambooHR. (n.d.). Performance review. HR Software with a heart. Focus on people, not process | BambooHR. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://www.bamboohr.com/resources/hr-glossary/performance-review#:~:text=A%20performance%20review%20is%20a,performance%20appraisals%20or%20performance%20evaluations

Banerjee, S. and John, P., 2021. Nudge plus: incorporating reflection into behavioral public policy. Behavioural Public Policy, pp.1-16.

Chanana, N., 2021. Employee engagement practices during COVID‐19 lockdown. Journal of public affairs, 21(4), p.e2508.

EHS Insight. (2021, August 16). Can employee safety have a punitive result? Yes, but here’s why it shouldn’t. EHS Software | EHS Insight. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://www.ehsinsight.com/blog/employee-safety-have-a-punitive-result#:~:text=It%20focuses%20on%20punishing%20employees,ways%20to%20encourage%20good%20behavior

Gordon, J. (2022). Theory X and Theory Y of motivation – Explained. The Business Professor, LLC. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://thebusinessprofessor.com/en_US/management-leadership-organizational-behavior/theory-x-and-theory-y-of-motivation

Management Study Guide. (2023). Theory X and Theory Y. Management Study Guide – Courses for Students, Professionals & Faculty Members. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://www.managementstudyguide.com/theory-x-y-motivation.htm

Meyer, G. (2022, June 20). Implementing a collaborative approach in the workplace – What’s involved? nBold. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://nbold.co/collaborative-approach-in-the-workplace/

Neale, N.R., Butterfield, K.D., Goodstein, J. and Tripp, T.M., 2020. Managers’ restorative versus punitive responses to employee wrongdoing: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Business Ethics161, pp.603-625.

Personio. (2022, April 13). Nudge theory for HR: Driving organizational change. Personio. The People Operating System. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://www.personio.com/hr-lexicon/nudge-theory-hr-guide/

Team 6Q. (2022, June 19). The power of two-way collaborative employee relationships. The 6Q Blog. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://inside.6q.io/collaborative-employee-relationships/

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